Ghee is really a fat-rich dairy product of Indian origin and its western equivalent is butteroil. When ghee is stored under ambient temperature, it undergoes oxidative deterioration. The oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids produces hydroperoxides and their subsequent breakdown products viz. aldehydes, ketones, low molecular weight acids, and oxyacids. These components are responsible for the development of off-flavors in ghee.
The Food Adulteration rules as amended in 1976 permit the addition of 0.02% by weight of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) either singly or in combination to the ghee. The problem is the continuous use of these antioxidants results in a teratogenic or carcinogenic effect in small animals and primates.
In ancient days, it had been a standard practice in India to include betel leaves and curry leaves to the butter during the clarification procedure for ghee making. But it is now recognized these substances indeed possess antioxidant properties, that will not just increase the shelf life and taste of the product but in addition they’re safe to the consumers.
Scientific research was carried out to review the antioxidant property of betel and curry leaves at different concentrations when they’re boiled during the clarification procedure for ghee making. Gingelly Oil The findings reveal that the original peroxide value of ghee (0.00) showed no increase around 30 days of storage at 30°C. Nevertheless the control samples showed a steep upsurge in peroxide value after 60 days of storage. Ghee samples treated with 1% curry leaves were found to be the absolute most resistant around 135 days. The betel leaves at 1% concentration appeared to be most acceptable and stable even with 147 days of storage at 30°C.
The amount of hydrolysis of ghee during the storage is measured by titration free of charge fatty acid (oleic acid). After having a month of storage, there’s a progressive upsurge in free fatty acid content. The control sample of ghee (not treated with any antioxidant) showed a 100 percent upsurge in free fatty acid content (after 30 days) where as the betel leaves treated ghee (at 1% level) offered maximum protection to the ghee from hydrolysis.
It is observed that the plant leaves (curry and betel leaves) contain phenolic compounds such as hydroxychavicol, eugenol, and certain proteins such as asparagine, glycine, serine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, threonine, alanine, proline, and tryptophan which can possess antioxidant properties and help to improve the shelf life of ghee.
A small lowering of the iodine value from 35.9 in control to 35.6 in treated ghee samples is observed when the samples are stored at 30°C for 147 days. Ghee samples treated with chemical antioxidants showed similar results. Ghee samples produced with curry and betel leaves showed a lowered butyrorefractometer (BR) reading. The compounds that go in to solution during the clarification process might be responsible for the lowered BR reading.
To conclude, the betel and curry leaves can serve as a potent antioxidant at 1% concentration without any adverse effect on the organoleptic properties of the ghee and help replace the BHA and BHT to give the shelf life of ghee.Read More